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Stillwell, S. B., Fineout-Overholt, E., Melnyk, B. M., & Williamson, K. M. (2010). Evidence-based practice, step by step: asking the clinical question: a key step in evidence-based practice. AJN The American Journal of Nursing, 110(3), 58-61.
Practice answering clinical questions with guided scenarios and step by step instructions.
PICO for MSK Nursing Projects
Are you working on a evidence based project or CN-III project? Use the PICO(T) format to frame your question.
Population/ Patient Problem: Who is your patient? (Disease or Health status, age, race, sex) / What is the problem?
Intervention: What do you plan to do for the patient? (Specific tests, therapies, medications)
Comparison: What is the alternative to your plan? (ie. No treatment, different type of treatment, etc.)
Outcome: What outcome do you seek? (Less symptoms, no symptoms, full health, etc.)
Time: What is the time frame? (This element is not always included.)
Your PICO(T) question will fall under one of these types:
Need Help?? Get assistance with the literature search for your PICO(T) question by using the library's PICO(T) Search Form!
This easy-to-follow tutorial from the Librarians at the Bodleian Library at Oxford University, in partnership with the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM), walks you through an example of turning a clinical research question into PICO format and using that to create search terms.